It was not clear what caused the fire at the reception area near the parking lot.
A man on a loudspeaker urged the protesters not to enter the compound, saying: “The message was delivered.”
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The US ambassador to Iraq and other staff were evacuated from the embassy.
Shouting “Down, Down USA!” the crowd hurled water bottles and smashed security cameras outside the embassy grounds.
“We recall that any aggression or harassment of foreign embassies will be firmly prohibited by the security forces,” Abdel Mahdi’s office said several hours after the attack began.
The protesters raised flags of the powerful paramilitary group Hashd al-Shaabi Popular Mobilization Forces, of which Kataib Hezbollah is part, and several people climbed over the wall of the embassy and chanted “death to America” and “no, no America”, witnesses said.
Tuesday’s attempted embassy storming took place after mourners held funerals for fighters killed in a Baghdad neighbourhood, after which they marched on to the heavily fortified Green Zone and kept walking until they reached the embassy.
The entire funeral procession, consisting mostly of PMF members and their followers, has entered through these gates without any resistance whatsoever from the Iraqi security forces that are supposed to guard the Green Zone.
The US raids the largest attack targeting an Iraqi state-sanctioned group in recent years and the calls for retaliation represent a new escalation in the proxy war between the US and Iran playing out in the Middle East.
The US military said “precision defensive strikes” were conducted against five sites belonging to Kataib Hezbollah, which is a separate force from the Lebanese group Hezbollah, in Iraq and Syria.