US Treasury Secretary-designate also sees no immediate lifting of China tariffs, adds that polluters should pay for carbon emissions.
Janet Yellen said she would work with lawmakers to fast-track a series of tax increases on corporations and wealthy Americans as the Biden administration tries to pass spending on infrastructure and expanding the social safety net.
Yellen, who awaits Senate approval for the post, on Thursday submitted written responses to Senate Finance Committee members’ follow-up questions on topics spanning climate change to sanctions policy. The 114-page document was obtained by Bloomberg News.
The Senate Finance panel is scheduled to advance Yellen’s nomination Friday, although a full Senate confirmation vote might not happen until next week.
Yellen promised to “work with members of Congress” on whether households earning less than $400,000 a year will be protected from any reversal of President Donald Trump’s 2017 tax cuts something Biden pledged on the campaign trail.
She also dodged the question of whether a repeal of the cap on state and local tax deductions, as proposed by Biden, would deliver a big tax cut to wealthy Americans while doing next to nothing for those in the bottom half of income distribution.
She was more direct in responding to criticism of Biden’s plan to reduce the threshold for the federal estate tax, saying “about the wealthiest six out of every thousand estates would face any tax” under the plan.
Yellen rebuffed criticism from Republicans that raising the corporate rate to 28% from 21% as Biden proposed would make the U.S. less competitive. The money could be used to invest in infrastructure and other programs that boost American businesses, she said.
Yellen suggested the wealthy could be audited at higher rates under her tenure. More robust IRS enforcement is one way to sidestep Congress in bringing in more revenue.
Yellen suggested that she won’t mount a fresh fight to revive several Federal Reserve lending facilities that were phased out by her predecessor. “The Federal Reserve will continue to provide support to the economy through its ongoing programs and the use of its available tools but as mandated by Congress, the 13(3) facilities funded by the Cares Act will not be available,” she wrote, referring to a section of the law governing the Fed
At the same time, she said, “Right now, taking too little action poses the greatest risk”.
She also pledged not to pressure the Fed on the scope of its asset purchases, a point of concern among some politicians and economists given the scale and impact of Fed bond buying. “I understand deeply why it is so important to maintain the tradition of the independence of the Fed in monetary policy,” said the former Fed chief.
Yellen reiterated her pledge from Tuesday that the U.S. won’t seek a weaker currency, and didn’t refer to the “strong dollar” policy the Treasury once pursued.
Asked about concerns surrounding the dollar’s role as the key global reserve currency, she said this status is supported by the U.S. having the largest economy and the deepest and most liquid capital markets. “We are committed to maintaining a sound economy and confidence in our financial system,” she said.
Yellen said the administration will work, across agencies, “to put effective pressure on countries that are intervening in the foreign exchange market to gain a trade advantage”.
She singled out bilateral deficits as an indicator of unfair trade practices, which she said she will “vigorously oppose,” although she said the gaps should be assessed in the context of the U.S.’s broader trade relationship with each country rather than a “single catch-all metric”
Yellen reiterated that there will be no immediate lifting of tariffs on China and that the Biden administration will be monitoring China’s adherence to pledges made in the Trump administration’s “phase one” bilateral trade deal.
She also repeated that the administration will use the “full array of tools” to counter China’s “abusive economic practices.” The strategy will include working with allies to take on China’s “unfair” actions.
Yellen said that it’s important that aid from the IMF, World Bank and elsewhere to help countries around the world combat Covid-19 doesn’t end up going to repay Chinese loans.
More broadly, Yellen said the U.S. needs to compete with China’s “economic statecraft” around the world and build partnerships distinguished from President Xi Jinping’s signature Belt and Road Initiative.
Yellen said she will review the Treasury’s debt-issuance strategy, including the weighted average maturity of federal debt.
She didn’t immediately suggest major changes. “Today, the demand for existing Treasury instruments remains robust and is sufficient to meet U.S. financing needs. Introducing new, ultra-long-term instruments would add new complexities to this market and deserves further study”
“We cannot solve the climate crisis without effective carbon pricing,” Yellen wrote.
“The president supports an enforcement mechanism that requires polluters to bear the full cost of the carbon pollution they are emitting”
She also said tax policy should be used to provide incentives for individuals and businesses to adopt “climate-friendly policies”
Yellen warned that “stranded assets” could result from the development of new forms of clean energy.
Yellen said the Treasury would “conduct a careful review of sanctions to ensure that they are targeted, effective, and minimize unintended consequences.” The Trump administration imposed a wide range of sanctions on companies, individuals and even oil tankers tied to Iran, North Korea, China, Venezuela and Russia often unilaterally.
“I commit to rigorously enforcing sanctions targeting Russian actors for territorial aggression in Eastern Ukraine and Crimea and other threats to U.S. national security,” she also said.
Yellen said she will ensure Iran takes steps to “resume compliance” with the nuclear deal struck under the Obama administration, which will be needed to warrant sanctions relief.
She also said she agreed that Iran is the world’s largest sponsor of state terrorism.
“I will ensure that Treasury continues its important work to combat Iran’s support for terrorism and abuse of human rights”
“We need to look closely at how to encourage their use for legitimate activities while curtailing their use for malign and illegal activities,” Yellen said.
She pledged to work closely with the Fed and other regulators “on how to implement an effective regulatory framework for these and other fintech innovations”.